The following info comes from Apple Discussions
Palatino is my favorite font. But since installing Mavericks, superscripting doesn’t work right in Microsoft Word.
According to Kurt Lang, author of Font Management in OS X the Palatino font supplied by Mavericks is flawed.
1) Remove the Palatino font from the /System/Library/Fonts/ folder and use the same named font installed by Mountain Lion or Lion. Both work correctly.
In Mavericks, Palatino is installed . . .
Continue Reading: Mavericks Palatino font and Word 2011