Mail sync is determined by the type of account (POP, IMAP, Exchange) you have. Sync for contacts and calendars is not an option for POP or IMAP accounts.
Apple has deprecated Sync Services in Mountain Lion and it no longer works reliably.
[Added Nov 17, 2013- Sync Services is no longer supported on Mavericks. Syncing with an iPhone via iTunes is not supported in Mavericks.]
You can no longer sync with an iPhone or iPad . . .
Continue Reading: Confused over what syncs in Outlook 2011?