Mail sync is determined by the type of account (POP, IMAP, Exchange) you have. Sync for contacts and calendars is not an option for POP or IMAP accounts.
Apple has deprecated Sync Services in Mountain Lion and it no longer works reliably.
[Added Nov 17, 2013- Sync Services is no longer supported on Mavericks. Syncing with an iPhone via iTunes is not supported in Mavericks.]
You can no longer sync with an iPhone or iPad . . .
Continue Reading: Confused over what syncs in Outlook 2011?
If you are a MoblieMe member, Apple requires you to upgrade to the new CalDAV-based MobileMe Calendar by May 5, 2011. Currently neither Entourage nor Outlook for Mac 2011 supports CalDAV. The new move also requires you to have Snow Leopard 10.6 installed and this requires an Intel computer. Apparently if you are still on Leopard, it works with limitations. See these links for additional info:
MobileMe: Frequently Asked Questions about the new MobileMe Calendar . . .
Continue Reading: New MobileMe Calendar uses CalDAV